the hierarchical catalogue of orthologs

Go to OrthoDB >> (opens new window)


  • Transfer of functional knowledge, e.g. from models to human.
  • Learn biology from nature’s experimentation mutating genes.


  • The broadest coverage of Eukaryotes / Prokaryotes / Viruses.
  • Computed evolutionary traits and collated functional annotations.


  • Comparative charts,
  • mapping of user data,
  • interactive Web GUI,
Get Orthologer >>


To guess gene functions "by tradition" we recover gene families by their ancestry, and collate known biological roles of the family members.


The more closely related the species, the more finely-resolved the gene orthologies.


We refer as orthologs to all descendants of a particular single gene of the last common ancestor, thus our operational definition refers to a specific phylogeny radiation for a set of species, termed the level-of-orthology.


Note: notions of orthologs and paralogs are disjoint, e.g. paralogs can be co-orthologs if duplicated after the speciation or can be not if duplicated earlier.

# OrthoDB graphical abstract

visual abstract from NAR

# Cite us

OrthoDB v11: annotation of orthologs in the widest sampling of organismal diversity D Kuznetsov, F Tegenfeldt, M Manni, M Seppey, M Berkeley, EV Kriventseva, EM Zdobnov, NAR, Nov 2022, doi:10.1093/nar/gkac998 (opens new window). PMID:36350662 (opens new window)

..more & stats (opens new window)

# Documentation

# Contact

Email: support[at]orthodb.org Join the OrthoDB-News (opens new window) mailing list (low trafic). BUSCO issues board (opens new window) OrthoLoger issues board (opens new window)

# Scientific Advisory Board

  • Stephen Richards from Baylor College of Medicine and UC Davis, USA.
  • John H. (Jack) Werren from the University of Rochester, USA.
  • John Kenneth Colbourne from the University of Birmingham, UK.
  • Steven Marygold from the University of Cambridge, UK.
  • Katharina Hoff from the University of Greifswald, Germany.